Articles Posted in Real Estate Law

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Most Texas landlords realize that when they rent to a tenant with a criminal history, the landlord may be held liable for criminal acts committed by that tenant. Texas Property Code Section 92.025 provides that a tenant cannot sue a landlord solely for leasing to a tenant convicted of, arrested for or placed on deferred adjudication for an offense. However, this law goes on to say that it does not preclude a suit for negligence against the landlord if: 1) the landlord leases to a tenant who has been convicted of murder, capital murder, indecency with a child, aggravated sexual assault and certain other listed offenses; and 2) the landlord knew or should have known of the conviction.

That’s pretty clear. However, now the federal government steps in. Even though a criminal record is not a protected status (like race, gender, religion, etc.) under the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Fair Housing Act, that has not prevented the Office of General Counsel for HUD from issuing “Guidance” on the application of the Fair Housing Act to prospective tenants with criminal records. The Guidance (what a misnomer) indicates that a landlord who conducts a background check of a prospective tenant and refuses to lease to that tenant on the basis of the prospective tenant’s criminal record may leave that landlord open to complaints of discrimination by prospective tenants with criminal records. Remember, HUD can institute enforcement proceedings on these complaints as well.

HUD’s position is a catch-22 for Texas landlords. On the one hand, if the landlord refuses to rent based on a prospective tenant’s criminal record, the landlord is open to complaints and possible enforcement proceedings by HUD. On the other hand, if the landlord rents to a tenant with a criminal record, the landlord can be liable to other tenants for the actions of the tenant with the criminal history. HUD recommends that landlords evaluate prospective tenants, including any criminal records, on a case-by-case basis. Now, what was a simple leasing decision, becomes a legal issue that should probably be reviewed by the landlord’s attorney. This increases the landlord’s costs, which will probably result in higher rents. Higher rents will push some of the poorest renters out of the price range for certain apartments.

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There has been a new development in Texas law regarding notary seals and this development affects any document in Texas that has to be notarized. This includes deeds, wills, trusts, oil and gas leases and many other kinds of documents. In fact, any document that must be filed in the deed records is required to be notarized.

Earlier this year, Texas House Bill 1683 went into effect and required the Texas Secretary of State to assign a notary identification number for all notaries and required notaries’ seals to include that number. Unfortunately, the statute was unclear on whether the law only applied to notaries who were commissioned or recommissioned after January 1, 2016 or to all notaries. The Secretary of State took the position that the law only applied to notaries who were commissioned or recommissioned on or after January 1, 2016, and that existing notaries did not have to get new seals under the new rules but would have to obtain a new seal that is compliance with the new rules once their current commission expires. This meant that under the law some notaries would have seals that include their notary identification number while others would not until their commission expired and they request renewal of their commission.

There is case law in Texas that suggests that a notary seal that is not in compliance with the notary seal rules is not a valid seal, and that an invalid seal when contested or challenged is considered to be no seal at all. This could raise serious legal issues concerning wills, trusts, oil and gas leases and any real estate document where the notary used a seal without their identification number on it.

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Occasionally, a Texas landowner will own a piece of property that lacks access, or sufficient access, to a public road. Usually, the first thing the landowner should do is to negotiate with an adjoining landowner to see if the adjoining landowner will agree to an easement of some kind. However, on some occasions, the landowner finds themselves at the mercy of difficult or recalcitrant adjoining landowners or is simply unable to reach an agreement with adjoining landowners and is unable to obtain any kind of access easement. In that situation, one of the only options is to file suit and request that a court declare an “easement by necessity”.

In the case of the Staley Family Partnership Ltd. v. Stiles, the Texas Supreme Court reiterated an important requirement for this kind of easement.

This case involved three tracts of land that were originally part of a single land grant in Collin County, Texas from the State of Texas to Thompson Helms in 1853. In 1866, the land was separated into three portions by a Texas probate court:

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The National Society of Professional Surveyors (NSPS) and the American Land Title Association (ALTA) recently issued new minimum standards for surveys that you can access here. The NSPS and ALTA each officially adopted these new standards in 2015, and they become effective on February 23, 2016.

Some notable changes include:

● The American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM) is now to be known as the National Society of Professional Surveyors.

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The Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act was amended recently, with changes going into effect on February 17, 2016. Previously, when a foreign person or entity sold real property in the United States, the buyer was required to withhold 10% of the gross sales price. Beginning February 17, 2016, the amount required to be withheld increases to 15%. Under 26 CFR 1.1461 and 26 CFR 1.1445-6, if a buyer is required to withhold the tax from the seller and fails to do so, the buyer becomes responsible for the tax and any interest that accrues between the time the tax was due and when the buyer actually pays the tax. However, if the buyer obtains a withholding certificate from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) that eliminates the withholding requirement and the seller fails to pay the tax, the buyer is not responsible for the tax. Either the buyer or the seller can apply for a withholding certificate.

Under the new requirements (that can be accessed here):

● If the sales price of the real property is less than $300,000 and the buyer intends to use the property as a residence, then no withholding is required.

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Earlier this week, the Texas Senate State Affairs Committee approved the draft of a new statute entitled the Texas Real Property Transfer on Death Act (Senate Bill 462). You can review a draft of the bill here. This bill would create a procedure for a non-testamentary transfer of real property. In this case, non-testamentary means that it passes outside of someone’s will and avoids the entire probate process.

We don’t yet know if the bill will end up as a statute. If it does, it will go into effect on September 1, 2015. The potential statute contains a number of traps for the unwary. For example, the specialized deed authorized by the bill applies only to a person who owns real property as a joint tenant with right of survivorship. As currently written, the bill does not apply to an owner who is a tenant in common or an owner of community property with or without a right of survivorship. As currently written, Section 114.055 of the bill has some very specific requirements that must be complied with if this specialized deed is to be effective. It will also be important to be aware of the conditions that will revoke the deed, described in Section 114.057 of the bill. Interestingly, a contrary provision in a will does not revoke or supersede a transfer on death deed.

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The United States Supreme Court recently issued an opinion that effects many Texas property and mineral owners. Specifically, the Court decided the case of Marvin M. Brandt Revocable Trust v. United States in an 8 to 1 decision. The Court determined that certain rights-of-way for railroads revert to private property owners following the railroad’s abandonment of the right-of-way easement. The ownership of the easement may carry with it ownership of the mineral estate. Where it does, and when the easement covers many acres, the mineral interests could be very valuable.

This case is significant for Texans because there are many railroads and railroad rights-of-way throughout Texas. The decision, written by Chief Justice John Roberts, addressed this central question: what happens to the ownership of the right-of-way easement when a railroad abandons its right-of way. In this case, the right-of-way was granted to the railroad under the General Railroad Right-of-Way Act of 1875. This Act gives railroads the right-of-way through public lands in the United States. The land at issue in this case was a ten-mile strip in Wyoming, upon which the right-of-way was created in 1908. Subsequently, in 1976, the federal government conveyed the land to Marvin and Lulu Brandt. The railroad later abandoned the right-of-way, and by 2004 all the track had been removed. In 2006, the U.S. government requested a judicial declaration of their title. The Brandts’ deed (which was a land patent) didn’t specify what would happen if the railroad gave up the right-of-way. Mr. Brandt argued that the right-of-way had been an easement, and that once it was abandoned, it was terminated and the easement area belonged to him. The U.S. government argued that after abandonment, title to the right-of-way land reverts back to the government. The U.S. District Court awarded title to the U.S. government and the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed.

train-tracks-1336056-m.jpg Chief Justice Roberts reversed the lower courts’ rulings. The Supreme Court’s majority opinion found that the right-of-way was terminated at the time of the abandonment, and that the Brandts owned the property. The Court found that the language, legislative history, and subsequent administrative interpretation of the 1875 Act supported this decision. The Court cited Great Northern Railway Co. v. United States, decided in 1942, in support of its decision. In that case, also decided that under the 1875 Act, the U.S. government granted the railroad only an easement, not fee simple title in the easement property, and therefore, the easement disappeared once it was abandoned. The Court found that in the Brandts’ case that the railroad abandoned the easement in 2004 and the government did not have any interest in the land after. Title to the easement property reverted to the Brandt Revocable Trust as the current owners of the land.

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There was an interesting decision issued last fall by the US Supreme Court regarding government land use control and regulation, an issue that is always significant in Texas. The case is Koontz v. St. Johns River Water Management District, and the opinion illustrates some important limitations on government land use regulations. The five to four decision, with the majority opinion written by Justice Samuel Alito, holds that in land use regulation, the government must show a nexus and proportionality between what the government demands of the landowner and the effects of the landowner’s proposed new use of the land. The decision underscores a landowner’s rights to challenge government decisions regarding land use on a constitutional basis.

In this case, Mr. Koontz bought 14.9 acres of undeveloped land in Florida in 1972. Later in 1972, Florida passed a law called the Water Resources Act which required landowners to obtain a permit and commit that what they want to build would not damage water resources. Then in 1984, Florida passed the Henderson Wetlands Protection Act which required that landowners obtain still additional government permits. Mr. Koontz wanted to develop part of his land in the 1990s. He wanted to fill part of the land to make a storm water pond, and offered to offset the environmental impact of this fill by creating a conservation easement on the rest of his land. His plan was rejected by the St. John’s River Management District, so Mr. Koontz turned to the court system and sued for monetary damages for an unconstitutional taking.

The Florida District Court and Court of Appeals held that Florida had overreached due to the nexus and proportionality requirements. Their decision was based on two prior US Supreme Court cases, Nollan v. California Coastal Commission and Dolan v. City of Tigard, both of which used the “nexus” and “rough proportionality” standards. The Florida Supreme Court reversed the two lower court decisions, and indicated that the Nollan and Dolan principles didn’t apply to Mr. Koontz’s case.

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For mineral owners in the northern Texas Panhandle, there is an exciting new development: Apache Corporation is planning to conduct a seismic survey in the Pennsylvania Canyon Wash formation to see if it is suitable for horizontal drilling. At present, there are parts of the Panhandle that not been fully explored for oil. Apache intends to drill down for the 3D survey. At 9,200 feet deep, the company believes that Canyon Wash would be well suited to the type of drilling that it wants to do.

Apache, headquartered in Houston, Texas, has grown beyond its humble beginnings in Minnesota to become a successful multinational oil and gas company.Today, Apache has $30 billion in capital and offices in the United States, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Egypt, and the United Kingdom. Yet since the company moved its headquarters to Houston in 1992, it has kept an active interest in Texas projects.

Currently, Apache holds a 75% interest in 122,000 fields south of shallow production in the Panhandle field. The area remains mostly pristine, with just 23 penetrations. Apache hopes to start a multi-rig program in 2012 in the area known as the Cimarron Arch. The company’s Bivins Ranch acreage is situated in Oldham, Potter, and Hartley counties. Apache’s partner in the acreage, Gun Oil Company, already completed a vertical Canyon Wash discovery well in Oldham County in March 2010. The well produced 42,000 bbl within the first nine months. Apache officials believe that the latest exploration will lead to wells that could recover up to 343,000 bbl/well — or 87% oil. Each well would have an estimated price tag of $3 million. Apache may achieve up to 100 drillable locations from 2012 through 2015.

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One of the largest offshore oil spills in history occurred when the massive Deepwater Horizon semi-submersible oil drilling platform suffered a drilling-related explosion, was engulfed in flames, and sank. The economic and environmental effects of this event are still not fully understood, so studies are ongoing to determine the impact that it has had on the Gulf region. One such study, entitled “The Gulf Oil Spill and Its Impact on Coastal Property Value Using The Before-and-After Procedure” was completed several months ago by the University of South Alabama on the effect that the spill has had on Alabama coastal property values.In order to determine the amount of decline in value on affected coastal properties, the study made use of the before and after procedure (BAAP) that is based upon market prices preceding the Deepwater Horizon incident and data indicating the impacted value of those same properties after the accident occurred. The study seeks to determine if a stigma has attached to these properties, which amounts to the perceived blemishes on those properties that have arisen as a result of the spill. The study focused on evaluating properties located directly on the waterfront, multiple types of residential properties, and both developed and undeveloped land. It relied upon sales transaction records in the area for the year prior to the spill as a comparison basis to help determine the possible drop in value attributable to the spill.

The research showed that the possible effect on the studied areas was significant, and vacant residential properties on the waterfront suffered the greatest decrease in values after the spill, as they dropped over 42 percent in value from April 20, 2010, to August 15, 2010. Single-family waterfront residences saw a half-percent drop during the same period, and condominiums saw a 3.5 percent drop. However, much of the decrease in value was likely due to a downturn in prevailing economic conditions. A control group of properties located in Florida (not affected by the spill) was also tracked, and similarly situated properties also saw condo and vacant waterfront land prices drop by over 20 percent during the same time period, though single family residences saw a jump in value of over 30 percent. As such, the numbers indicate that only the drop in undeveloped property prices may have been caused by the oil spill.

While the study rendered a somewhat surprising result for many – that there was not a stigma attached to waterfront properties in the Gulf region of Alabama that caused a decline in property values – it also noted that there are some limitations to the analysis. The BAAP method is best served by having real-time property sales price information for continued evaluation to render more accurate results. Additionally, the BAAP does not factor in a decline in potential buyers in the market, and instead only focuses on sales prices properties during the study’s time period. In order to formulate a more full analysis of the Gulf Oil Spill’s effect on real estate values in the region, an adjustment process for the decline in buying activity is needed.